At this stage when one wants to know about the PID controller, you would have come across control systems, and if not you may go through one of my past blogs on Control Systems.

The basic need of one is to have a stable control system, we know to stabilize any system we usually configure a closed-loop system which is also called feedback control. The feedback control which is introduced in a system is capable of:

So, the idea of introducing…

Before getting started with the simulation of the modulation in MATLAB, let's look at the basics of modulation, need, and different types.


It is the process of influencing data and information on the carrier. The process of transmission and reception of information is called communication. Modulation is widely used as it improves the quality of reception and transmission, increases the range of communication, reduces the antenna dimensions, and less interference from other signals.

Types of Modulation:

The basic type of analog modulations are as follows:

Introduction to Operational Amplifier:

The term operational amplifier or op-amp for short was coined in 1947 by John R. Ragazzini to denote a special type of amplifier that by proper selection of its external components could be configured for a variety of operations such as amplification, addition, subtraction, differentiation, integration, comparison, and many more. Before exploring this wonderful device let us take a brief look at the history of the op-amp and what was before op-amp and why op-amp is so much used today.

Brief History — Walkthrough different inventions

While most of today’s op-amps users are probably somewhat familiar…

What are Coronaviruses?

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which may cause illness in animals, mammals, birds or humans. In humans, these coronaviruses cause respiratory tract infections that can be mild such as some cases of the common cold, and other may be severe such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) and now COVID-19. These symptoms in other species vary like for example, in cows and pigs they cause diarrhea. The most recently discovered coronavirus causes coronavirus disease COVID-19.


COVID-19 is the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus. …

Let’s have an overview about Control Systems. What is a control system? What is its definition? What is the significance of it? What are the requirements for a good control system? And what are the various types of control systems? In short, let’s have a brief, short and simple introduction to the basics of control systems.

What is Control System?

Let’s split these two words control and system and try to find out its respective explanation.

Control: Control can be defined as to regulate, direct or command something (here a system) so as that desired objective is attained. …

Almost in every electronic device today transistors are used. So, transistor is one of the very important and the basic component today. There are lots of transistors till date have been manufactured. So, what is exactly a transistor is?

From the name transistor we can infer,

Transistor = Transfer + Resistor

Hence it is a combination of Transfer of Resistance. It Transfers resistance from high to low. This is the important property which makes it very useful and the important and very necessary component in the electronic devices.

Transistor is a semi-conductor device which can both conduct as well as…

Combinational Circuits in the digital electronics are the most fundamental types of circuits and the output of these circuits depends only on the input of the circuits.

Block Diagram of Combinational Circuit.
Block Diagram of Combinational Circuit.

Although most of the circuits encountered or required the combinational logic but also there is the requirement of the memory element in the circuits for storage purposes and such circuits are called the Sequential Circuits.

A sequential circuit contains the fundamental block i.e. the combinational logic part but also have one storage block since the output of the such circuits depends on not only on the input but also depends on the previous…

Jay Mistry

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